In any scientific field, 10 years can bring epochal changes. In medicine, which exists at a unique intersection of science, politics and the economy, that change comes from many quarters. The repercussions over a decade can affect millions of lives, in good ways and bad.

When Proto magazine debuted in 2005, overall spending on health care in the United States was more than 40% lower. More researchers received national funding, and more people died of HIV. A national conversation about universal acccess to research journals was just beginning. Technologies such as genome sequencing, digital patient records and 3-D printing were only hinting at the profound changes that each would bring.

While no number tells the whole story, the graphics and charts below show the changed state of health care in 2015 and the decade’s headline trends.